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Negations

Optional 'pas'

When the following verbs are accompanied by an infinitive, 'pas' is optional.

savoir: Il ne sait (pas) conduire.
He doesn't know how to drive.

Il ne le sait pas. (pas is necessary)
He doesn't know it.

  oser: Je n'ose (pas) parler.
I don't dare speak.
  pouvoir: Nous ne pouvons (pas) aller.
We can't go.

Je ne peux pas.(pas is necessary)
I can't.

  cesser: Il ne cesse (pas) de parler.
He doesn't stop talking.

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