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A verb is negated by placing ne after the subject and usually pas after the verb.

Je ne veux pas être un numéro.
I don't want to be a number.

Ne becomes n' before a vowel. In compound tenses pas follows the auxiliary.

La France a perdu une bataille!  Mais la France n'a pas perdu la guerre! -- Appel du général de Gaulle
France has lost a battle!  But France has not lost the war.

Placing ne pas before an infinitive negates it.

L'enfer est de ne pas aimer.
Hell is not to love.

In casual speech, the ne is often omitted.

Je sais pas.
I don't know.

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