at the beginning of a word represents a short vowel sound
(a, i, or u), a long i,
or an ay sound.
Alif madda, آ,
is used when a sustained 'a' sound occurs at the beginning
of a word.
The next character has two forms. The joined form, بـ,
is used when the character is followed by another character.
The full form,ب,
is used when that character appears by itself or at the end
of a word. Remember that Arabic is read from right to left.
Arabic characters should be written form right to left as
Most Arabic characters both joined and full forms. Here are
some more characters with both forms.
Alif in the middle of a word represents a more sustained 'a'
sound. Short vowels aren't represented by a letter when they
appear inside a word. Alif is one of the few letters that
joins with letters that precede it. It never joins with a
letter that follows it.
Quiz I - Writing
Some of the following characters have both
full and joined forms. Others just have one form. The first
is pronounced as a j everywhere except in Eygpt where
it is pronounced with a hard g.
Quiz III - Writing
have four forms. One form is used when the letter starts a
word, one when joined with both the preceding and following
character, another when at the end of a word and joined to
the preceding character, and finally a form used when it isn't
joined with another character.
In middle of a word, wow can represent the long vowel u
or the vowel combination ou, ow, or w
and at the end of a word, the long vowel u and sometimes
The joined form of ya,يـ,
is another example of a tooth. Ya is pronounced as the consonant
y at the beginning of a sentence, long i,
in the middle, and long i at the end.
Quiz V - Writing
Comprehensive Quiz -
Comprehensive Writing Practice